“Soft Matter Physics” is a new term in physical vocabularies. From a physical point of view living matter belongs to a special type of condensed matter known as a soft condensed matter. This monograph is dedicated to the application of liquid crystal approach from soft matter physics in biophysics of membranes. Lyotropics (concentrated solutions of soaps and detergents, as well as a wide variety of biologically active substances, lipids, lipopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids) are mainly discussed. Soft liquid crystal matter shows amazing ability. High - specific effects of weak external influences, relative structural rigidity and ability to restore the original structure after removal of these effects are only part of the capabilities. This is the reason lyotropic matter to be most appropriate physical state of living matter.